Newsflash - this was first written in 2000 and based on a Java Applet. In 2015, I reimplemented it as a Javascript web application using the web audio API.
Run the new web audio API version! yee-king home  : run the applet

abstract  : introduction  : inspiration  : implementation  : conclustion  : references





  1.  Spreading the Cause Matthew Yee-King 2000

  2. FM Theory and Application (By Musicians for Musicians). John Chowning and David Bristow 1986

  3. Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. C. M. Bishop 1995

  4. JSyn - Audio Software Synthesis API and Plugins for Java Phil Burk 2000

  5. Native Instruments web site: 2000

  6. Steinbergs website:

  7. 'Computers and Musical style'. D. Cope. Oxford University Press 1991.

  8. 'GenJam: An Interactive Genetic Algorithm Jazz Improviser' J. Biles.

  9. Music, Mind and Machine: Studies in Computer Music, Music Cognition and Artificial Intelligence Peter Desain and Henkjan Honing " book review by Stephen W. Smoliar in Artificial Intelligence 79 pp361-371 1995

  10. JSyn - Java Audio Synthesis API by Phil Burk presented at the International Computer Music Conference 1998

  11. Java Native Interface tutorial Beth Stearns 2000

  12. Audiomorph - an online program to evolve audio Matthew Yee-King 2000

  13. Better living through chemistry: evolving GasNets for robot control Husbands, Smith, Jakobi and O'Shea csrp 498

  14. Further Adventures of the Sonomorphs Gary Lee Nelson 1995

  15. "Evolving Line Drawings", Baker, Ellie and Margo Seltzer from Graphics Interface 94 Proceedings; Wayne Davis & Barry Joe, ed.; Morgan Kaufman pub. Availeble from 1994

  16. Island Model Genetic Algorithms and Linearly Separable Problems Whitley, D et al  in Proceedings of the AISB Workshop on Evolutionary Computation 1997

  17. The Blind Watchmaker Richard Dawkins, , W. W. Norton, New York, 1987.

  18. Natural Theology, William Paley 1802.

  19. Java implementation of Dawkins Biomorph

  20. Preparation and Spontaneity Matthew Yee-king 2000

  21. "Tracking a Criminal Suspect Through "Face-Space" with a Genetic Algorithm". Caldwell, Craig, and Victor S. Johnston.. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, pages 416-421. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. 1991

  22. Evolutionary Computer Graphics Linda Moss

  23. "Artistic Design with Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks". Henrik Hautop, Luigi Pagliarini, and Orazio Miglino From The of the 1NWGA, Vassa, Finland, Jan 9-12. 1995

  24. "Artificial Evolution for Computer Graphics," Karl Sims in Computer Graphics (Siggraph '91 proceedings), Vol.25, No.4, July 1991

  25. "Sonomorphs: An Application of Genetic Algorithms to the Growth and Development of Musical Organisms" Nelson, G in Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Art & Technology Symposium, Connecticut College, March 4-7, 1993, pp. 155-169. also at   1993

  26. 'Genic Representation: Reconciling Content and Causal Complexity' Michael Wheeler and Andy Clark - draft copy used

  27. A Comparison between Cellular Encoding and Direct Encoding for Genetic Neural Networks Frederic Gruau, Darrell Whitley, Larry Pyeatt

  28. A genetic algorithm tutorial Darrell Whitley Colorado state uni comp sci dept technical report cs-93-103 p31 1993

  29. 'The Sound Gallery'. Sam Woolf, EASy MSc Dissertation Project. September 2nd, 1999

  30. personal communication, Chris Marshall

  31. Extract from an amil from Phil Burk to the JSyn mailing list 2000





Required figures: (and numbers of these figures)


  1. Main program with key

  2. Circuit display with key

  3. Diagrams of modules

  4. Genetic parameters

  5. Development

  6. Sonogram of a 400Hz square wave

  7. Graphs showing what low band high pass filters do.

  8. Biomorph forms